‘These Kings of the Feathers, they steal your bread’

While most of Australia’s Imperial Force went to France in 1916, the bulk of Australia’s mounted forces remained in Egypt to counter to Turkish threat at Suez. After 1916  when the threat to the canal was over and victory at Romani had been secured the Light Horse advanced into Turkish territory. In 1917 they entered Palestine and by 1918 had advanced into Jordan and Syria. The campaign ended on 31st October 1918 – a few weeks after the capture of Damascus.

With the main focus on operations along the Western front the campaign in the Middle East was regarded as somewhat of a side show. Despite this, the campaign had an undoubted air of romance due to the terrain which helped to create the legend of the Australian Light Horse. These men, dubbed the ‘Kings of the Feathers’ by the Arabs or the ‘White Gurkha’s’ by Turkish troops – a reference to their deadly skill with a bayonet  had proven themselves to be expert rough-riding horsemen and good shots. Bush life had hardened them to go for long periods with little food or available water. They also showed remarkable ability to find their way over strange terrain and were able to use its features for cover, both in attack and defence.

Horses have always played a special role in the story of Australia.  The Light Horse favoured a breed of horse named ‘Walers’ – a New South Wales stockhorse type which were strong, great-hearted animals with the strains of both thoroughbred and semi-draught characteristics to give them speed, strength and stamina. Everything the Light Horse trooper needed for living and fighting had to be carried by him and his horse. When fully loaded, Walers often carried between 130 and 150 kilos. And, in the years of war to come, they would have to carry these huge loads for long distances, in searing heat, sometimes at the gallop, sometimes without water for 60 and even 70 hours at a stretch.

The men were easily identifiable – the slouch hat with its emu plume, jokingly called ‘kangaroo feathers’ became a symbol of the style and romance of the Light Horse.

Image Source: The Australian War Memorial 

Fighting in the desert brought many challenges for the men. Being able to find food and water was essential for the well-being of the men and their animals. Both horses and mules played a crucial role in maintaining the advance. Troops and their mounts travelled long distances in extremes of heat and cold, often hungry with little protection from scorching winds or driving rains.

Trooper Edward Cleaver, 4th Light Horse Regiment, 1917

“Enclosed you will see what has been my home for months, but it won’t be any good when the rain comes … at present the dust is awful … I laid down one night to sleep and had to dig myself out in the morning…”

RCDIG0000894_0

4298056

Image Source: The Australian War Memorial 

Trooper Ion Idriess, 5th Light Horse Regiment, 1917 

‘The flies are here in millions, they fly, flop onto your food whether you like it or not. As I am writing this note I have to keep them off with one hand and write with the other. Our horses suffer worse than we do. They have to stand in the sun and hot sand for there is no shelter. We have to scrape the top sand away before we can sit down and enjoy a nice stew full of sand and flies’

There is much to be written on the role of the Light Horse and their operations in the desert which I may cover in further blog posts however I’d like to share a tribute to the Light Horse penned by General Allenby at the cessation of operations in the Middle East.

“The Australian lighthorseman combines with a splendid physique a restless activity of mind. This mental quality renders him somewhat impatient of rigid and formal discipline, but it confers upon him the gift of adaptability, and this is the secret of much of his success mounted or on foot. In this dual role . . . The Australian lighthorseman has proved himself equal to the best. He has earned the gratitude of the Empire and the admiration of the world.” 

 

 

Advertisements

Military History, Antiquities and the New Suez Canal

To coincide with the inauguration of the new Suez Canal the Ministry of Antiquities have recently organised several events to mark the occasion.

News of interest is the commissioning of a new Museum in the Kantara area which will focus upon  Egypt’s military history from the Pharaonic to more contemporary periods.

In a recent interview with Ahram Weekly Mohamed Abdel-Maqsoud, the coordinator of archaeological sites around the Suez Canal, confirmed that after the official opening of the new canal that the Ministry of Antiquities would start a major project to contextualise Egypt’s military history. This is likely to focus upon the development of the Horus Road which still retains physical evidence of its ancient fortresses and military structures. However this will include the refurbishment of seven archaeological sites at Kantara East and West which will be opened to the public on a long-term basis. Development of the area may facilitate easier access to the CWGC cemeteries in the Suez area subject to the travel advice issued by the UK Foreign Office.

Kantara

The Kantara War Memorial Cemetery – Image Source: The Commonwealth War Graves Commission

In the early part of the First World War, Kantara was an important point in the defence of Suez against Turkish attacks and marked the starting point of the new railway east towards Sinai and Palestine, begun in January 1916. Kantara developed into a major base and hospital centre and the cemetery was begun in February 1916 for burials from the various hospitals, continuing in use until late 1920. After the Armistice, the cemetery was more than doubled in size when graves were brought in from other cemeteries and desert battlefields, notably those at Rumani, Qatia, El Arish and Rafa.

The Second World War again saw Kantara as a hospital centre. No 1 General Hospital was there from July 1941 to December 1945 and two others, Nos 41 and 92, were there in turn for varying periods. One of the major allied medical units in the area, No 8 Polish General Hospital, adjoined the war cemetery. The Cemetery contains 1,562 Commonwealth burials of the First World War and 110 from the Second World War. There are also 341 war graves of other nationalities in the cemetery, many of them made from the Polish hospital and concentrated in a distinct Polish extension.